Civilization V Customisation Wiki

The Kalmyks led by Ayuka Khan is a custom civilisation mod by EmeraldRange, with contributions from Coiot, TophatPaladin, Zharques and others.

This mod requires Brave New World.


The Kalmyks are a Buddhist people in Europe with Mongolian ethnic ties dating back to Oirat in Dzungaria. They created the Kalmyk Khanate in 1635 in modern day North Caucasian Russia. Through emigration and the rough history of the Kalmyk people under the United Soviet Socialist Republics, Kalmyk communities have been established in far-flung places like the United States and Czechia.

The history of the Kalmyk people begins with the Oirats, the westernmost group of Mongols in the Altai mountains. We learn more about them during Genghis Khan's unprecedented rise to power and expansion where "the forest people" were subjugated as part of his unification. At the collapse of the Yuan dynasty and the Oirats forged a loose alliance known as the four Oirat re-establishing nomadic rule and slowly consolidating towards Eastern Mongolia. The Oirat would decline in power, but many Oirat Khanates would reappear later in history like the Dzungar Khanate. Internal division in the Koshut tribe of the Oirat in the early 17th century eventually lead Kho Orlok of the Torghuts to lead his people west to the Volga River. This expulsion by the first Altan Khan drove Oirats west towards becoming the Kalmyk Khanate.

After their expulsion during the period of internal conflict under the First Altan, Torghut migrated toward the lower Volga region near modern day Saratov in 1618. Upon arrival to the Volga region, the Oirats took over land once part of the Astrakhan Khanate that had since been defeated and claimed by the Tsardom of Russia. However, due to the light population on the area, the Tsardom was in no position to prevent the resettlement. Having a direct political interest in ensuring the Oirats did not strike alliances with Turkic neighbours, the Russians instead allied the Kalmyk with a treaty to protect the southern Russian border in exchange for the land.

Kalymk Khanate[]

The Oirats consolidated their land in the first half of the 17th century by expelling the native Nogai Horde and Karakalpak, eventually taking the Mangyshlak Peninsula for themselves. During this period, the Kalmyk Khanate was formally established from their interactions with the settled state of Russia. The relationship remained uneasy as mutual raiding between Cossacks within Russia and the Kalmyk made the settled state of Russia uneasy. As the 17th century progressed, the burgeoning empire increasingly relied on the Kalmyk Khanate to send cavalrymen in support its campaigns. Russia's provision of monetary payment and dry goods brought the Kalmyks under leader like Ayuka Khan to aid the overextended Russian military in their campaigns against Muslim powers to the south like Iran, the Ottomans, and the Crimean Khanate.

The decline of the Kalmyk Khanate arguably began at the death of Ayuka Khan, which created various factions and instability within the Kalmyk. This slowly chipped away at the unified strength that gave the Kalmyks their sovereign autonomy in the eyes of the Russian Tsars and by the end of the 18th century, Russia began pursuing settlement policies that only hastened this decline.

Ayuka Khan[]

Ayuka Khan was a Kalmyk leader under whose rule the Kalmyk Khanate reached its zenith in terms of economic, military, and politic power. On behalf of Russia, Ayuka Khan protected the southern borders of Russia, engaging in many military expeditions against the Muslim tribes of Central Asia, the North Caucasus and Crimea.

Under Ayuka Khan, Kalmyks rose to political and military prominence as the Tsarist government sought the increased use of their cavalry in support of its military campaigns against the Muslim powers in the south, such as Persia, the Ottoman Empire, the Nogais and the Kuban Tatars and Crimean Khanate. Ayuka Khan also waged wars against the Kazakhs, subjugated the Mangyshlak Turkmens, and made multiple expeditions against the highlanders of the North Caucasus. These campaigns highlighted the strategic importance of the Kalmyk Khanate which functioned as a buffer zone, separating Russia and the Muslim world, as Russia fought wars in Europe. To encourage the release of cavalrymen in support of its military campaigns, the Tsarist government increasingly relied on the provision of monetary payments and dry goods to the Khan and his nobility.

For his support in the Russo-Persian War of 1722, Ayuka received a golden sword and a belt covered with precious gems, bestowed upon him by Peter I. In 1690, the Dalai Lama bestowed Kalmyk taisha Ayuke Khan's title with a seal.

Deportations and Kalmykia[]

The Russian Civil war and the February Revolution was an enthusiastic moment for the Kalmyks. However, once the Bolsheviks took control during the October Revolutions, that enthusiasm quickly faded. After the Red Army captured Astrakhan, they retaliated with savage attacks on Buddhist temples and clergy. Many Kalmyk involved in the Crimean resistance fled on British and French ships eventually resettling across Central Europe, including Belgrade where they established on of the first Buddhist temples in Central Europe.

In 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union and took control of some parts of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Republic. The Soviet army eventually took control back of the area in 1942. However, Joseph Stalin accused the Kalmyk people of collaborating with the Germans and deported the entire population, including Red Army soldiers, to various gulags in Siberia. The deportations took place within a period of 24 hours at night during the winter without notice in unheated cattle cars killing 4.9% of the population in the first 3 months. The Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Republic was quickly dissolved and divided up renaming cities to Russian names.

It took until 1957, 4 years after the death of Stalin, for Kalmyks to be allowed to return from Siberia. However, the Soviet Union continued their repression of Kalmyk culture by forbidding teaching Oirat language continuing the genocide of Stalin's reign. Kalmykia was re-established but the sudden influx and bad planning of agricultural projects led to widespread desertification. In 1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kalmykia chose to remain an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation due to their economic hardship from the desertification and genocide. However, the collapse of the USSR only made the economic hardship more difficult.

Dawn of Man[]

Let the tales speak of your deeds, oh great Ayuka Khan of the proud Kalmyk people. Under your rule, the Kalmyks reached their zenith, living in prosperity from trade with Russia, China and Tibet. Under your reign, the Kalmyks were free to roam the pastures and grow in influence in Saint Petersburg. But you were not a mere puppet of the Tsars, conducting mutual raids with the Russians in your capacity as a European Buddhist Khanate. After your death, however, factionalism drove your people to division, and centuries of Russian control have forced your people to and from the far reaches of North Asia.


Leaderscreen by EmeraldRange

Powerful Ayuka Khan, you have the opportunity to once again bring your Khanate to drink under the light of prosperity. Stand in proud independence, take your great golden sword and slice through would-be subjugators. Will you lead your people to a new age of glory? Can you build a civilization that can stand the test of time?

Introduction: "Greetings traveller from afar, I am Ayuka Khan of the Kalmyks. Within these lands you will pay me homage."

Defeat: "Honorable fight that was. I lay my sword before you."

Attacked: "A battle! When you have been destroyed, know this: I shall grant you mercy"

Unique Attributes[]

Kalmyks (Ayuka Khan)

Art by EmeraldRange

Epic of Jangar

Great Generals gain +1 Moves Movement and provide +33% Strength Combat Strength against cities following a different Religion Religion. Spawn a cavalry unit when first converting a city more than 10 tiles (standard size) away from its Holy City.


Art by Coiot

Sume (Temple)
  • Provides +1 FaithIcon Faith on all Scientist specialists and +1 CultureIcon Culture from Engineer specialists.
  • Provides Science Science and CultureIcon Culture based on how far this city is from the holy city of its majority Religion religion.

Art by Coiot

Xazg (Cavalry)
  • +20% Strength Strength against damaged enemies.
  • +5% Strength Strength per enemy unit adjacent when garrisoned in a city.
  • When moving into a city more than 10 tiles (standard size) from your current capital, gain a permenant +1 Moves movement bonus.
City List
  1. Saratov
  2. Elista
  3. Lagan
  4. Astrakhan
  5. Samara
  6. Bashanta
  7. Tsaritsyn
  8. Guryev
  9. Yashkul'
  10. Karakorum
  11. Toickoe
  12. Omsk
  13. Sadovoe
  14. Malye Derbety
  15. Rostov-on-Don
  16. Priiutnoe
  17. Belgrade
  18. Tomsky
  19. Balqash
  20. Arym
  21. Krasnojarsk
  22. Manych
  23. Norillag
  24. Yashalta
  25. Iki Burul
  26. Oblinoe
  27. Solovetsky
  28. Shatta
  29. Utta
  30. Ulan-Erge
  31. Kevudy
  32. Beloozernyy
  33. Barun
  34. Ozernyy
  35. Chess City
Spy List
  1. Vazki
  2. Sanal
  3. Angarak
  4. Batu
  5. Kirsan
  6. Dzhirgan
  7. Sar
  8. Elistina
  9. Aguya
  10. Tzatana



Peace Theme War Theme
"Edjin duun by Okna Tsahan Zam"; "Horse-head fiddle performed by Baator Gavrilovitch Bukhaev"

Mod Support[]

Mod Support
Community Balance Patch
Ethnic Units
Map Labels
Unique Cultural Influence
Wish for the World

Full Credits List[]

Direct Download
Steam Workshop
Latest Version: v 1
Last Updated: 20 July 2022


  • EmeraldRange: Art, Design, Code, Lua, Texts, UU Texture
  • Coiot: UU Icon, UB Icon
  • TopHatPaladin: Lua
  • Zharques: Texts
  • JakeWalrusWhale: TSL
  • Firaxis: UU model
  • Ayta: Culture Consultation
  • Agla: Leaderscene Help
  • Leugi: Leaderscene Help
  • DarthKyofu: Leaderscene Help
Crossroads of the World [edit]
AfghanistanThe AfsharidsBukhara (Muhammad Shaybani)Bukhara (Shah Murad)The DzungarsEast TurkestanThe GhuridsThe KalmyksThe KazakhsKazanKhivaKhwarezmKokandMongolia (Ögedei Khan)Mongolia (Sorghaghtani)The NogayOxusQara KhitaiSibirSogdianaTajikistanTurkmenistanXinjiangYettisharThe Zunbils
EmeraldRange's Civilizations and Collabs†
TaungooKonbaungThayae KhittayaBurma (Aung San)Burma (U Nu)Myanmar (Than Shwe)
Shan StatesPeguLannaKarenKokang† • Wa
South Asia
Bengal† • Gupta
One a Continent
Africa: Mogadishu • Australia: Yolngu • Europe: Kalmyks • North America: Cayuga • South America: Guyana

Category:Steppe Cultures