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Thailand led by Phibunsongkhram is a custom civilization mod by GPuzzle, with contributions from RawSasquatch, DarthStarkiller and JakeWalrusWhale.

This mod requires Brave New World.

Overview[]

Thailand[]

Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon kingdoms, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which rivalled each other. Documented European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, now one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–1688), gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in the 1767 Burmese–Siamese War. Taksin (r. 1767–1782) quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (r. 1782–1809), the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century

Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory; nevertheless, it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States, and played a key anti-communist role in the region as a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In 2013, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by a military junta.       

Phibunsongkhram[]

Early Life[]

Plaek Khittasangkha was born on 14 July 1897 in Mueang Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi Province in the Kingdom of Siam to Keed Khittasangkha and his wife. Plaek's paternal grandfather was said to be a Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant. However, the family was completely assimilated as Thai and Plaek did not show any features deemed to be typical of ethnic Chinese, which is why he could later successfully conceal and deny his Chinese roots. Plaek's parents owned a durian orchard and he received his given name – meaning 'strange' in English – because of his unusual appearance as a child. Plaek Khittasangkha studied at Buddhist temple schools, then was appointed to Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy. He graduated in 1914 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the artillery. Following World War I, he was sent to study artillery tactics in France. In 1928, as he rose in rank, he received the noble title Luang from King Prajadhipok and became known as Luang Phibunsongkhram. He would later drop his Luang title, but permanently adopted Phibunsongkhram as his surname.

In 1932, Phibun was one of the leaders of the Royal Siamese Army branch of the Khana Ratsadon (People's Party), a political organization that staged a coup d'état which overthrew the absolute monarchy in Siam and replaced it with a constitutional monarchy. Phibun, at the time a lieutenant colonel, quickly rose to prominence in the military as a "man-on-horseback". The 1932 coup was followed by the nationalization of some companies and increasing state control of the economy.

The following year, Phibun and allied military officers successfully crushed the Boworadet Rebellion, a royalist revolt led by Prince Boworadet. While King Prajadhipok was not involved in the rebellion, it marked the beginning of a slide which ended in his abdication and replacement by King Ananda Mahidol in 1935. The new king was still a child studying in Switzerland, and parliament appointed Colonel Prince Anuwatjaturong, Lieutenant Commander Prince Aditya Dibabha, and Chao Phraya Yommaraj (Pun Sukhum) as his regents.

First Premiership[]

On 16 December 1938, Phibun replaced Phraya Phahol as the Prime Minister of Thailand and as the Commander of the Royal Siamese Army. Phibun became the de facto dictator of Thailand and established a military dictatorship, consolidating his position by rewarding several members of his own army clique with influential positions in his government.

Phibun immediately prioritized Thai nationalism to the point of ultranationalism, and to support this policy he launched a series of major reforms known as the Thai Cultural Revolution to increase the pace of modernisation in Thailand. His goal "Aimed to uplift the national spirit and moral code of the nation and instilling progressive tendencies and a newness into Thai life". A series of cultural mandates were issued by the government. These mandates encouraged all Thais to salute the flag in public places, know the new national anthem, and use the standardized Thai language, not regional dialects or languages. People were encouraged to adopt Western attire as opposed to traditional clothing styles. Similarly, people were encouraged to eat with a fork and spoon, rather than with their hands as was customary in Thai culture at the time. Phibun saw these policies as necessary, in the interest of progressivism, to change Thailand in the minds of foreigners from an undeveloped country into a civilised and modern one.

Phibun exploited the Fall of France in June 1940 and the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in September 1940 to advance Thai interests in French Indochina following a border dispute with France. Phibun believed Thailand could recover territories ceded to France by King Rama V because the French would avoid armed confrontation or offer serious resistance. Thailand fought against Vichy France over the disputed areas from October 1940 to May 1941. The technologically and numerically superior Thai force invaded French Indochina and attacked military targets in major cities. Despite Thai successes, the French tactical victory at the Battle of Ko Chang prompted intervention from the Japanese, who mediated an armistice where the French were forced to cede the disputed territories to Thailand.

When the Japanese invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941, (because of the international date line this occurred an hour and a half before the attack on Pearl Harbor), Phibun was reluctantly forced to order a general ceasefire after just one day of resistance and allow the Japanese armies to use the country as a base for their invasions of the British colonies of Burma and Malaya. Hesitancy, however, gave way to enthusiasm after the Japanese rolled through the Malayan Campaign in a "Bicycle Blitzkrieg" with surprisingly little resistance. On 21 December Phibun signed a military alliance with Japan. The following month, on 25 January 1942, Phibun declared war on Britain and the United States. South Africa and New Zealand declared war on Thailand on the same day. Australia followed soon after. Phibun purged all who opposed the Japanese alliance from his government. Pridi Banomyong was appointed acting regent for the absent King Ananda Mahidol, while Direk Jayanama, the prominent foreign minister who had advocated continued resistance against the Japanese, was later sent to Tokyo as an ambassador. The United States considered Thailand to be a puppet state of Japan and refused to declare war on it. When the Allies were victorious, the United States blocked British efforts to impose a punitive peace. In 1944, as the Japanese neared defeat and the underground anti-Japanese Free Thai Movement steadily grew in strength, the National Assembly ousted Phibun as prime minister and his six-year reign as the military commander-in-chief came to an end. Phibun's resignation was partly forced by two grandiose plans: one was to relocate the capital from Bangkok to a remote site in the jungle near Phetchabun in north central Thailand, and another was to build a "Buddhist city" in Saraburi. Announced at a time of severe economic difficulty, these ideas turned many government officers against him. After his resignation, Phibun went to stay at the army headquarters in Lopburi.

Second Premiership[]

In November 1947, Royal Thai Army units under the control of Phibun known as the Coup Group carried out the Siamese coup d'état of 1947 which forced then-Prime Minister Thawan Thamrongnawasawat to resign. The rebels installed Khuang Aphaiwong again as prime minister as the military coup risked international disapproval. Pridi Phanomyong was persecuted but was aided by British and US intelligence officers, and thus managed to escape the country. On 8 April 1948, Phibun assumed the position of Prime Minister after the military forced Khuang out of office.

Phibun's second premiership was notably different, abandoning the fascist styling and rhetoric that characterised his first premiership, and instead promoted a façade of democracy. The beginning of the Cold War saw Phibun align Thailand with the anti-communist camp, and received large quantities of US aid following Thailand's entry into the Korean War as part of the United Nations Command's multi-national allied force against the communist forces of North Korea and the People's Republic of China. Phibun's anti-Chinese campaign was resumed, with the government restricting Chinese immigration and undertaking various measures to restrict economic domination of the Thai market by those of Chinese descent. Chinese schools and associations were once again shut down. Despite open pro-Western and anti-Chinese policies, in the late-1950s Phibun arranged to send two of the children of Sang Phathanothai, his closest advisor, to China with the intention of establishing a backdoor channel for dialogue between China and Thailand. Sirin Phathanothai, aged eight, and her brother, aged twelve, were sent to be brought up under the assistants of Premier Zhou Enlai as his wards. Sirin later wrote The Dragon's Pearl, an autobiography telling her experiences growing up in the 1950s and 1960s among the leaders of China.

Phibun was reportedly thrilled by the democracy and freedom of speech he had witnessed during a long trip abroad to the United States and Europe in 1955. Following the example of Hyde Park in London, he set up a "Speakers' Corner" at the Sanam Luang in Bangkok. Phibun began to democratize Thailand by allowing the formation of new political parties, amnestied political opponents, and planned free elections. Phibun founded and became chairman of his own new political party, the Seri Manangkhasila Party, which was dominated by the most influential in the military and the government. The Employment Act of January 1957 legalized trade unions, limited weekly working hours, regulated holidays and overtime, and instituted health and safety regulations. The International Workers' Day became a public holiday.

Phibun's second premiership was longer but plagued with political instability, and there were numerous attempts to oppose his rule and remove him from power. Unlike his first premiership, Phibun faced noticeable opposition from people connected to the Free Thai Movement due to his alliance with the Japanese, including from within the military. Additionally, Phibun was indebted to the powerful Coup Group that had returned him to power.

In February 1957, public opinion turned against Phibun at the end of his second term when his party was suspected of fraudulent practices during an election, including the intimidation of the opposition, buying votes, and electoral fraud. In addition, critics of Phibun accused him of a lack of respect for the Thai monarchy, as the anti-aristocratic prime minister had always sought to limit the role of the monarchy to a constitutional minimum and had taken on religious functions that traditionally belonged to the monarch. For example, Phibun led the celebrations of the 2500th anniversary of Buddhism in 1956/57 instead of the King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who was openly critical of Phibun . On 16 September 1957, Phibun was eventually overthrown in a coup d'etat by members of the Royal Thai Army under the command of Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat, who had earlier sworn to be Phibun's most loyal subordinate. Sarit was supported by many royalists who wanted to regain a foothold, and there were rumors that the United States was "deeply involved" in the coup.

Phibun was then forced into exile after the coup, first fleeing to Cambodia, but later settled in Japan after Sarit's new regime rejected his requests to allow him to return to Thailand. In 1960, Phibun briefly travelled to India to be a monk in the Buddhist temple in Bodhgaya.   

Dawn of Man[]

Salutations to you, Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram! You rose from humble origins as the son of a farmer to become a field marshal of Thailand and its longest-lasting Prime Minister. After quelling violent rebellions and forever changing your country's culture from rural and disorganized to urban and orderly, you directly fought against the colonial overlords that upheld the old order, and remained in power after the end of WWII, even with your collaboration with the Japanese. You soon found yourself in a new role as a staunch defender of democracy and freedom amongst the nations of the world.

GPuzzThailandLS

Leaderscreen by RawSasquatch

Prime Minister, your people desire, no, they need your return, for you to bring order into this chaos and freedom onto this tyranny. Will you once again empower Thailand to never before seen heights? Will you march against those who have humiliated your proud nation? Will you build a Civilization that can stand the test of time?

Introduction: "Good day, and welcome to the unbowing lands of Thailand. I wish to see you as an ally, not an enemy."

Defeat: "I've failed miserably. I have let this nation drag itself through the ground. Thank you for putting it out of its misery."

Unique Attributes[]

Thailand (Phibunsongkhram)
PhibunLeadee

Art by RawSasquatch

The Cultural Mandates

Upon adopting CultureIcon Social Policies and Ideological Tenets, melee, air and mobile units ignore difficult terrain and deal 50% more damage against wounded units for the next five turns. When your borders expand, gain CultureIcon culture, doubled in conquered cities.

PhibunUU

Art by RawSasquatch

Type A-1 (Fighter)
  • 50% more effective against Naval Units.
  • Begins with Dogfighting I
  • Slightly Weaker.
  • Whenever your borders expands, it gains 25 HP.
PhibunUU2

Art by DarthKyofu

Little Tiger (Marine)
  • If it begins on difficult terrain, it provides CultureIcon Culture based on its distance from the capital.
  • Strength Stronger.
City List
  1. Bangkok
  2. Lopburi
  3. Nonthaburi
  4. Chiang Mai
  5. Hat Yai
  6. Surat Thani
  7. Phetchabun
  8. Khon Kaen
  9. Udon Thani
  10. Ubon Ratchathani
  11. Korat
  12. Nakhon Si Thammarat
  13. Chiang Tung
  14. Syburi
  15. Phra Tabong
  16. Champassak
  17. Nakhon Sawan
  18. Rangsit
  19. Phuket
  20. Phitsanulok
  21. Roi Et
  22. Chanthaburi
  23. Prachinburi
  24. Nakhon Chai Si
  25. Saraburi
  26. Mukdahan
  27. Lampang
  28. Chiang Rai
  29. Samut Sakhon
Spy List
  • Aran
  • Chanarong
  • Kiet
  • Niran
  • Virote
  • Kulap
  • Mayruee
  • Phueng
  • Ratana
  • Tola

Strategy[]

PhibunIcon

Music[]

Peace Theme War Theme
"Still on My Mind", by the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra "Phra Maha Mongkol" [1], by the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra

Mod Support[]

Mod Support
Yes
No
Community Balance Patch
Unknown
Yes
Unknown
Ethnic Units
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Map Labels
Yes
Yes
Yes
Unknown
Unique Cultural Influence
No
Wish for the World
No
YnAEMP
Yes

Full Credits List[]

Steam Workshop Downloader
Steam Workshop
Latest Version: v 1
Last Updated: 5 May 2020

 

 
  • GPuzzle: Code, Research, Text, Design, Mod Support
  • DarthKyofu: Art (Civ Icon, Little Tiger IconCity List Addition, DDS compilation)
  • RawSasquatch: Art (Leaderscreen, Type A-1 Icon)
  • JakeWalrusWhale: Art (Map)
Monsoon Season
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