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The Kingdom of Gwynedd led by Cadwallon ap Cadfan is a custom civilization by Grant

This mod requires Brave New World.



Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd repeatedly rose to dominance and were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or invasions. The kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn—the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063—was shattered by a Saxon invasion in 1063 just prior to the Norman invasion of Wales, but the House of Aberffraw restored by Gruffudd ap Cynan slowly recovered and Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd was able to proclaim the Principality of Wales at the Aberdyfi gathering of Welsh princes in 1216. In 1277, the Treaty of Aberconwy granted peace between the two but would also guarantee that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death, and so it represented the completion of the first stage of the conquest of Wales by Edward I. The sons of their founder, Cunedda, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi. The true borders of the realm varied over time, but Gwynedd proper was generally thought to comprise the cantrefs of Aberffraw, Cemais, and Cantref Rhosyr on Anglesey and Arllechwedd, Arfon, Dunoding, Dyffryn Clwyd, Llŷn, Rhos, Rhufoniog, and Tegeingl at the mountainous mainland region of Snowdonia opposite.

The Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage, and an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain, particularly with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion. The Welsh ruling classes continued to emphasize Roman ancestors within their pedigrees as a way to link their rule with the old imperial Roman order, suggesting stability and continuity with that old order. According to Professor John Davies, "There is a determinedly Brythonic, and indeed Roman, air to early Gwynedd." So palpable was the Roman heritage felt that Professor Bryan Ward-Perkins of Trinity College, Oxford, wrote "It took until 1282, when Edward I conquered Gwynedd, for the last part of Roman Britain to fall and a strong case can be made for Gwynedd as the very last part of the entire Roman Empire, east and west, to fall to the barbarians."

In the post-Roman period, the earliest rulers of Wales and Gwynedd may have exerted authority over regions no larger than the cantrefi (hundred) described in Welsh law codified centuries later, with their size somewhat comparable in size to the Irish tuath. These early petty kings or princelings (Lloyd uses the term chieftain) adopted the title rhi in Welsh (akin to the Irish Gaelic rí), later replaced by brenin, a title used to "denote a less archaic form of kingship," according to Professor John Davies. Genealogical lists compiled around 960 bear out that a number of these early rulers claimed degrees of association with the old Roman order, but do not appear in the official royal lineages. "It may be assumed that the stronger kings annexed the territories of their weaker neighbors and that the lineages of the victors are the only lineages to have survived," according to Davies. Smaller and weaker chieftains coalesced around more powerful princelings, sometimes through voluntary vassalage or inheritance, though at other times through conquest, and the lesser princelings coalesced around still greater princelings, until a regional prince could claim authority over the whole of north Wales from the River Dyfi in the south to the Dee in the east, and incorporating Anglesey.

Cadwallon ap Cadfan[]

Cadwallon ap Cadfan was the king of Gwynedd from 625 to 634. He became infamous for rallying Gwynedd from almost complete Northumbrian subjugation to rule over a divided and shattered Northumbria with tyranny and bloodlust. He was apparently fostered by King Edwin of Deira, who would later become Northumbrian king, and was taught in Brittany. After Cadwallon came of age, Edwin returned from Gwynedd and recovered a united Northumbria with the help of Redwald’s East Angles.

After the death of King Cadfan ap Iago, Cadwallon succeeded to the throne, but was given no respite. Edwin, now Northumbrian king, immediately turned on his fostered son and invaded Gwynedd, conquering the Isle of Man before attacking Anglesey by sea. Cadwallon was exiled to the tiny island of Priestholm off Anglesey, but managed to escape to Ireland after Edwin’s forces had left. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, he then fled to Brittany, where with the support of King Salomon II he hopped to Guernsey and landed on the Devonshire coast with a large army.

Sending notice to other Welsh kingdoms, he marched to relieve Isca (Exeter), a major Dumnonian town, which was being besieged by Penda’s Mercians at the time. Penda was defeated and Cadwallon forged an alliance with him, as well as with Dumnonia, against the Northumbrians. The combined Mercian-Gwynedd army marched north to northern wales and successfully reclaimed the throne of Gwynedd. Cadwallon, however, was not finished, and in the interests of his Mercian ally he marched into northern Britain, extending under his wing parts of Rheged which had been under Northumbrian suzerainty for some time. Geoffrey claims that Cadwallon then besieged and burnt York and other major Northumbrian cities, launching, according to Bede, a pseudo-ethnic war of extermination against the Angles.

At the Battle of Hatfield Chase in 633 Edwin was finally defeated, but Cadwallon harried the defeated Northumbrians who had split themselves back into Bernicia and Deira. For about a year, Cadwallon was undisputed warlord of Northumbria, although in a tenuous alliance with the Mercians, slaughtering potential rivals and those who had already accepted his rule. This war of extermination eventually caught up to him, as enough Northumbrians gathered under King Oswald, the half-brother of Enfrith, a king of Bernicia who Cadwallon had killed, and decisively defeated the forces of Cadwallon and probably killed him there.

The defeat of Gwynedd marked the resurgence of Northumbrian fortunes and the start of the Welsh Dark Ages, but Cadwallon’s legacy preserved the independence of Gwynedd for centuries to come. While he is remembered as a brutal, even despotic, warlord, these impressions mostly come from Northumbrian viewpoints; the Welsh certainly viewed him as a conqueror in the vein of Arthur or Aurelius Ambrosius.

Dawn of Man[]

Lord Cadwallon, only the once and future king is revered more than you. You rose to the throne while British kingdoms were falling to the Angles and Saxons all around you; Elfed, Rheged, Pengwern, Dumnonia, just to name a few. You were unlike your brothers who wished to wallow in their petty realms; you dared to fight back. You were pushed to the brink; exiled by a Northumbrian invasion to the tiny island of Glannauc, you sought shelter first in Ireland, then in Guernsey, where you staged the comeback of the century. Invading occupied Dumnonia, you slew the Mercians besieging Isca, forcing the Mercian king into an alliance. With the Mercians by your side, you thundered into Northumbria, crushing their army and killing their king. For a brief period, you were king over all Northumbria, despite attempts by princes to rebel. You were eventually slain by the king’s brother and a weakened Northumbria was restored, but Gwynedd was for centuries after an independent kingdom, thanks to your efforts. Under your banner, the British cause triumphed once more.


Leaderscreen by Grant

Oh King of Gwynedd, Arthur has passed into myth and the mantle of great battle-leader now belongs to you. It is you they hope for; it is you that they know will bring them real liberation from the Saxon menace. Can you rise to the challenge? Can you raise an army not seen since the days of legend? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?

Introduction: "I am the Lord of all Britons, king of the Venedotae, commander of my countrymen against the invaders; my name is Cadwallon, son of Cadfan, son of Iago. Who are you who dares to stand before me?"

Defeat: "Defeat! The red dragon of our people stumbles with wounds. But when the dragon heals, your empire will burn to ashes."

Unique Attributes[]

Gwynedd (Cadwallon ap Cadfan)

Art by Grant

Hammer of the Humber

Capturing the enemy’s Capital Capital temporarily doubles Greatperson Great Person generation, which is extended by capturing the enemy’s new Capital Capital. Victory in battle increases the unit Production Production of Allied Citystate City-states.


Art by Grant

Uchelwyr (Horseman)
  • +50% Production Production cost.
  • +20% Strength attack against Cities, +60% if the city was formerly owned by a Friendship partner or Citystate City-state ally.
  • Half as expensive to train if a Citystate City-state ally has Horses Horses.

Art by Grant

Clas (Temple)
  • -30% Production Production cost.
  • Contains a slot for a Greatwork Great Work of Art.
  • +1 FaithIcon Faith and +10% border CultureIcon Culture for every 10 Clasau in the empire.
City List
  1. Ddegannwy
  2. Aberffraw
  3. Llan Ffagan Fach
  4. Deverdoeu
  5. Rhuddlan
  6. Aber Garth Celyn
  7. Ruthin
  8. Dinbych
  9. Bangor
  10. Llanbeblig
  11. Rhosyr
  12. Llanrhos
  13. Llanddwywe
  14. Pwllheli
  15. Dolyddelen
  16. Cemais
  17. Dolbadarn
  18. Ynys Seiriol
  19. Abercynwy
  20. Abergele
  21. Dinerth
  22. Caerbygi
  23. Clynnog Fawr
  24. Llanrhaeadr
  25. Llanelwy
  26. Garn Boduan
  27. Aberdaron
  28. Penrhos Lligwy
  29. Llangernyw
  30. Cadair Idris
  31. Dôlcelli
  32. Y Mŵd
  33. Cair Segeint
  34. Llanelwy
  35. Sant Trillo
  36. Newin
  37. Llanengan
  38. Cynlas
  39. Penmon
  40. Ynys Enlli
Spy List
  • Maelgwn
  • Rhun Hir
  • Eurgain
  • Meddyf
  • Gwallwyn
  • Ethyllt
  • Beli
  • Cadfan
  • Owain
  • Idwal


Gwynedd Icon New


Peace Theme War Theme
"Dream of Albion", by Jeff van Dyck "Sons Of Cymru", by Richard Beddow

Mod Support[]

Mod Support
Community Balance Patch
Ethnic Units
Map Labels
Unique Cultural Influence
Wish for the World

Full Credits List[]

Steam Workshop
Latest Version: v 1
Last Updated: 1 June 2022
  • Grant: Code, Research, Art, Text, Design, Mod Support
  • DarthKyofu: Art (Civilization Icon)
  • Jeff van Dyck: Music (Peace Theme)
  • Richard Beddow: Music (War Theme)
  • Lads:Feedback
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