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Burma led by Aung San[1] is a custom civilization mod by EmeraldRange with contributions from Chrisy15.

This mod requires BNW and, if used together with Sukritact's Burma, modifies it to be the Bagan Dynasty.[2]

Overview[]

Background[]

(excerpts from the Burmese civlopedia)

Burma is a Southeast Asian country located between India and Thailand. Although there were several civilisations to develop in the region before them, the Pyu civilisation is considered to be the earliest predecessors of Burma. However, historians believe that it was only near the end of the Pyu era that Burmese horseback raiders from modern-day Yunan province came into the Pyu lands, eventually settling in Bagan.

Anawratha, now considered the Father of Burma, conquered and united the many Pyu realms and the Mon people to the south into the First Myanmar Empire. Bagan later fell into collapse through Mongol raids and was succeeded by several smaller kingdoms in the period known as the Interregnum, which lasted for over 2 centuries. In 1510, the principality of Taungoo conquered not just Burma, but also Ayutthaya, Lanna and Lan Xang under Bayinnaung, establishing the largest contiguous empire in the history of Southeast Asia. The Taungoo Empire was succeeded by the Konbaung in 1752 once Taungoo's power had declined significantly.The Konbaung sought to be stable by reversing a long-standing policy of vassalage and ethnic self-rule for its domain and beginning a long Burmanisation process.  However, after an expansion into Assam and Manipur in the early 1800s, they came into conflict with the British over territorial disputes, starting the Anglo Burmese Wars.

The first Anglo Burmese War broke out over territorial disputes in Northeastern India. Initially Burmese familiarity with the terrain, having conquered Assam only 10 years before, provided enormous success in India. However, the British surprised the Burmese by attacking Yangon directly by the navy, easily taking the city as the alarmed Burmese retreated entirely from India. After a long gruelling war, the Burmese army came to peace terms with the British in the Treaty of Yadanabo, ceding Northeastern India, Arakan, Yangon and Taninthari. The Burmese Empire ceased to be any threat to the British, became steeped in debt and had its martial pride destroyed. After two more wars, the entirety of Burma was annexed into the British Raj in 1885.

Although the British had annexed all of Burma by the start of 1886, the unceremonial removal of the royal family and general dissatisfaction generated widespread revolts and fighting that the British were unable to quell effectively for another decade. Burma was relegated to a province of British India and many of the outer peoples in Burma faced even worse oppression as the British fully ended any ethnic self-rule. The British separated state and monastery, causing severe disruptions in Burmese society. The British encouraged secular schooling and English to discourage a sense of cultural unity that wasn't British.

The biggest actors representing the Burmese in the first parts of British colonialism was the YMBA and Burmese who went to England to be educated in universities. The YMBA propagated and served as the remnants of the theocratic institutions of the Konbaung while the university Burmese pushed for reforms and greater Burmese representation in British India. The first strikes broke out in 1920 against the British tertiary education system. Many monks later lead protests and hunger strikes in the late 1920s, with some inspiring armed revolt in Arakan and the first martyr for Burmese independence: U Wisara. In 1930, Saya San led the Galon Revolution that became regional and then national. The insurgency was put down after 2 years of guerrilla fighting. The trial of Saya San, who was executed, spurred political activism. Aung San would become involved when he and other students refused to oust the author of anonymous articles in his magazine. In 1936, the Dobama association was formed with the intention of returning Burma to its true masters: the Bamar. In 1937, the British granted Burma its own assembly, government and separation from British India, but this did little to quell the revolutionary sentiments. The year 1938 was the year 1300 in the Burmese calendar and saw the 1300 Revolution, lead by students. They successfully managed to attack and penetrate the Secretariat, the seat of British government. However several people were killed after fighting broke out in Yangon.

World War Two[]

(excerpts from the Burmese civlopedia)

The completion of the Burma Road from Mandalay to Kunming was keeping China afloat in the face of Japanese imperialism in World War 2 and the rubber plantations in Burma was critical to supplying the US's military production. With the front of the Greater East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere, Japan, having intercepted and trained 30 Burmese rebels into generals, invaded Burma in 1942. The Aung San formed the Burma Independence Army and recruited local people as they joined forces with the Japanese. As they were allied and had nominal control of Thailand, they invaded successfully from the southern tip of Burma upwards. After conquering Dawei/Tavoy, another division entered Burma from the East. The Japanese took Mawlamyine, a city that was hard to defend due to its proximity to a 1.5-mile wide river mouth.

The Japanese advanced onto Yangon, unobstructed by the British Burmese attempt to stop them at Sittang by blowing up bridges across the Sittang River. This decision not to hold a defensive position at the river made the British realise that Yangon was largely indefensible and retreated from Yangon, burning and destroying the port and oil fields. The Japanese attempted to block them off from retreating north but failed. The Japanese established the State of Burma in 1943, under the theoretical rule of the Thirty Comrades, lead by Prime Minister Ba Maw and War Minister Aung San. However, the Burmese began to see the falsity of the promised independence as soon as their government was declared.

Meanwhile, the British retreated and attempted to stop the Japanese in Central Burma, as Mandalay was the critical start of the Burma Road into China. Hoping for the Japanese to slow down and for Chinese reinforcements, the British were slowly pushed back. The British kept the Japanese at bay in Taungoo, but once the city fell, Japanese troops mobilised rapidly along the highway to Mandalay. In 1944, the British joined the many civilian refugees, mostly Indians fearing both the Japanese and the Burmese's wrath, in retreating fully to India. The Burma Road was severed and the Japanese chased the British up along the Arakan coast but stopped short of Bangladesh due to British scorched Earth destruction of Chittagong.

During the Burma Campaign, the Burmese Independence Army (BIA) established by Aung San had garnered ridiculous support amongst locals. As they were aiding Japanese conquests with the promise of independence, many of these enthusiastic civilian recruits were trained properly under the Japanese and Burmese Bohs. The size of the BIA had grown so much it was reorganised as the Burmese National Army, still led by Defence Minister Aung San.

The apparent betrayal of the Japanese caused Aung San to secretly attempt communication with the Allies. Aung San also reached a hand out to some of the other Thirty Comrades who aligned themselves with different ideologies. In August 1944, after the Allied retreat, the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League was established in secret between these ideologically opposed independence groups.

In the Central campaign, the British had presumed that the Japanese would continue their aggressive attacks and fight in the plains to the Northwest, but the new Japanese commander avoided areas like the plains where British troops were adept and skilled. After realising this, the British made progress across Western Burma and covertly crossed the Irrawaddy towards Meiktila, faking an attack on Mandalay. They reached Meiktila on the 24th of February, ironically catching a Japanese generals' meeting on the possibility of a flank away from Mandalay. Because so much of the British army was there, they took the city with ease and fended off a Japanese countersiege afterwards. The British siege of Mandalay was won after a hard battle, but the Japanese escaped through the sewers and tunnels under the ancient city.

The Japanese fled south and found themselves with a new enemy: the Burmese National Army whose uprising was in full swing in March. the BNA joined and cooperated with the British to chase Japan south before the Monsoon in June and a Karen uprising in the east cut off the roads to Thailand, further weakening the Japanese. The British enacted an amphibious assault from the South on Yangon, fearing that the Japanese would fight in Yangon even through the monsoon rather than surrender.

However, when paratroopers and the assault arrived, they only found that the Japanese were retreating from the city eastwards. Burmese rebels and bandits intercepted the retreating Japanese trying to cross the river at Sittaung and the British support led to 10,000 Japanese casualties.

By the time Britain had taken Burma back, the war had basically been won and the atomic bombs would be dropped soon. The economic ruin over 4 years, consistent Burmese nationalism and Aung San's argument that their inaction from 1943 to the Race for Rangoon allowed the British to approach Meiktila unseen made it difficult to hold on to the colony after the end of the war.

Aung San's popularity was apparent when he was elected Premier with a sweeping majority. Aung San negotiated and solidified a unified Burma with all the non-Bamar ethnic groups in Panglong and began the process for independence. But the falling out between Aung San's communists and the other ideologues in the Anti-Fascist League led to Aung San's assassination by the conservatives in the AFL on the 19th of July. U Nu continued the government and presided over the independence of Burma on January 4 1948.

Aung San[]

(excerpts from the Burmese civlopedia)

Aung San was the architect of Burma's independence and the leader of Burma through the Second World War through his control of the Burma National Army. He, like the other 29 Comrades, trained under the Japanese and fought with them until their promises of independence were denied in 1944. Aung San remains an influential thinker and leader in Burmese politics today.

Aung San was born Htein Lin in the village of Natmauk in 1915. His family had connections to the resistance movements since his birth as his grandfather was a Boh in the Third Anglo-Burmese wars. After graduating high school in a monastic school system, he went to Yangon to study law in Rangoon University. In the university, his natural leadership quickly rose him up in stature within the Rangoon University Students' Union. He was elected to the executive committee in 1933 and became the editor of the Magazine Oway, which argued for Burmese independence. It was here that he met many of the Thiry Comrades, including U Nu.

In 1936, he was threatened with expulsion when he refused to reveal the author of an article criticising a University Official. However, the Students' Union when on strike and managed to get the threats withdrawn. He was later elected to be president of not just the Union but also the national All-Burma Student's Union. In 1938, Aung San left university and became active politically. He joined the Dobama Association and became elected general secretary and organised nationwide strikes known as the 1300 Revolution. In August of 1939, Aung San formed the Communist Party of Burma and became the general secretary of the Freedom Bloc. However, in 1940, the British issued a warrant for him and several other members of the Freedom Bloc for trying to organise an uprising. Aung San fled the country, going towards Communist-controlled China. However, he was intercepted by the Japanese in Xiamen and was convinced to go to Japan to train instead.

After training in Japan with a few of the other exiled rebels, he returned to Burma in the midst of WW2 in 1941 with an offer of arms and help against the British. He gathered the first batch of revolutionaries to go back to Japan to train: these would become the Thirty Comrades that formed the Burma Independence Army in 1942. In the BIA, Aung San fought on the side of the Japanese with the promise of a free Burma. After the Japanese capture of Yangon, the Thirty formed the State of Burma and Aung San acted as Defence Minister. Reorganising the BIA into the Burma National Army and training the ridiculous number of recruits with strict discipline, Aung San's State of Burma would aid the Japanese in their campaign North to Mandalay.

However, Aung San soon became disillusioned with the Japanese. He realised the falsity of their promise and their declining ability to win the war. The old masters had been replaced with new ones. In 1944, after months of not so covert inaction and planning, Aung San launched several uprisings and revolts against the Japanese. The British had taken Mandalay and the Japanese were on a retreat south. Aung San's forces intercepted and slowed Japanese retreat. The British attempted to launch an amphibious attack on Yangon but found it empty. However, several rebels and bandits were able to block and stall a hasty Japanese retreat from Yangon at the Sittang River.

After the war, the Burma National Army was slowly disarmed and disbanded. Aung San was offered a position as Deputy Inspector General in the Burma Army under the British but refused as the British did not recognise the provisional government he set up in wartime. Instead, he formed a People's Volunteer Army and organised the Former Freedom Bloc into the Anti-Fascist People's League. Aung San and several other Burmese were allowed into the Executive Council, from which Aung San was elected Premier resoundingly. For all purposes, he was a Prime Minister of Burma subject to a British veto. After negotiating in London, Aung San got Britain to guarantee Burmese independence by 27 January 1948. At the press conference in Delhi afterwards, Aung San stressed complete independence was his goal and would be prepared for a violent struggle against any dominion status.

He returned to Burma and got unanimous consent from representatives of 7 other major ethnic groups for a unified Burma at Panglong. However, before independence in 1948, Aung San and 6 other cabinet members of the transitionary government were assassinated by armed paramilitaries on the 19th of July. The assassination was organised by U Saw and he was subsequently hanged for treason. Conspiracies surround the event to this day as there was little evidence of his motives at or after the trial.

Dawn of Man[]

Bogyokegyi Aung San! We salute you for your resolve in 1300, your courage in the war and your cunning in turning on the Japanese. Burma is a long proud nation that the wicked British relegated to a minor province from which you fought to return it to its former martial glory. You fought righteously valuing every member of your small army, training civilians into elite forces at the battleground and having the moral integrity to switch sides once you learnt of the true intentions of the Japanese. Although you were so suddenly assassinated by U Saw, you brought Burma to its independence and restored the martial pride of the Burmese people.

Aung San Leaderscreen

Great Thakin Aung San, your people long for you to return in times of hardship. Burma is once again under the threat of imperial powers. Can you rise up to fight the challenge? Will self-determination prevail once again? Can you build a civilisation that can stand the test of time?


Introduction: "Greetings Comrade. Are you a friend or enemy to this great land, Burma?"

Introduction: "Welcome to our rightful inheritance, Burma. Are you here to help or hinder our righteous struggle?"

Defeat: "If it is no trouble, I'd like to have roti with garden peas."

Defeat: "Even if I die, the spirit of peace and nationalism will fight on."

Unique Attributes[]

Burma (Aung San)
ERBurmaLeader
One Worth One Hundred[3]

+20% Strength Combat Strength for every enemy unit one tile away outnumbering your unit. +15% Strength Combat Strength when next to a city originally owned by Burma at the start of your turn.

ERBurmaUU
ERBurmaUU2
Boh (Great General)
  • Provides 1 XP to adjacent units every turn when in foreign territory
ERBurmaUB
YMBA School[4] (Library)
  • Provides Science Science from FaithIcon Faith producing Buildings.
City List
  1. Yangon
  2. Mawlamyine
  3. Bago
  4. Pathein
  5. Mandalay
  6. Taungoo
  7. Maymyo
  8. Taunggyi
  9. Meiktila
  10. Yenangyaung
  11. Kawkareik
  12. Lashio
  13. Magway
  14. Phyu
  15. Pyay
  16. Oktwin
  17. Kyaing Toan
  18. Loikaw
  19. Myitkyina
  20. Indaw
  21. Shwetaung
  22. Sittwe
  23. Banmaw
  24. Hpa-An
  25. Bagan
  26. Pakokku
  27. Kyaikthto
  28. Kyaukgyi
  29. Myaungmya
  30. Kalaw
  31. Taungdwingyi
  32. Hlegu
  33. Thaton
  34. Dawei
  35. Thone Gwa
  36. Hinthada
  37. Nyaung Shwe
  38. Letpadan
  39. Kyaik Don
  40. Sakan Gyi
  41. Bilin
Spy List
  • Chit
  • Hla
  • Khin
  • Kyi
  • Suu
  • San
  • Lin
  • Soe
  • Than
  • Myint
SBurma Icon

Mod Support []

  • JFDLC [June 2019]
  • Additional Achievements
  • YnAEMP
  • Sukritact's Burma
  • Events and Decisions
  • Unique Cultural Influence

Events & Decisions[]

Train the Red Ant Corps[]

Through our numerous fights through rough terrain, we've gained a tactical advantage in playing the terrain to our advantage. We should implement these strategies in our training programmes for our troops so that they can ravage enemy lines like red ants in the jungle!

Requirements/Restrictions:

  • Player must be Burma.
  • Must have at least 2 Bohs in a Forest or Jungle tile
  • Must have Military Science
  • May only enacted once per game

Costs:

  • 200 Gold Gold
  • 2 Magistrates Magistrate

Rewards:

  • All newly trained Melee Units get the Ambush I Promotion.
  • All newly trained Melee and Mounted units get the Drill I Promotion.

(This effect stacks with Alhambra to get Drill II).

Hold the Panglong Conference[]

In the newly independent state of Burma, we must decide a system on which to pull the different ethnicities together into our nation. For politics is nationalism, it is primarily important the lands we have consolidated remain united of their own volition. Hence, we should all come to a conference to reallocate governmental and cultural structures. 

Requirements/Restrictions:

  • Player must be Burma.
  • Must have control of cities founded by at least two other civs
  • Must have researched Economics
  • May only enacted once per game

Costs:

  • 2 Magistrates Magistrates
  • 180 Gold Culture

Rewards:

  • +4 Global Happiness per civ from which you own at least one city they originally founded at the time of this conference.

References[]

  1. Steam Workshop Page
  2. More Civs' Burma
  3. ကလောင်စုံ: တပ်မတော်၏ဖခင်, 9-11
  4. Lieberman 2003: 151–152
EmeraldRange's Civilizations and Collabs†
Burma
TaungooKonbaungThayae KhittayaBurma (Aung San)Burma (U Nu)Myanmar (Than Shwe)
Mainland
Shan StatesPeguLannaKarenKokang† • Wa
Island
SundaSingaporeMedangDayak
South Asia
Bengal† • Gupta
One a Continent
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