Civilization V Customisation Wiki

Belgium led by Leopold II is a custom civilization mod by JFD, with contributions from Janboruta, DarthKyofu, Regalman, COF and Alga.

This mod requires Brave New World. It renames the City-States of Antwerp and Brussels to Vaduz and Andorra La Vella, respectively.



The name 'Belgium' is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire.

The Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries.Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.

Congo Free State[]

The Congo Free State was a large state in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908. It was ruled personally by Leopold II and not by the government of Belgium, of which he was the constitutional monarch. Leopold II was able to procure the region by convincing other Eurasian states at the Berlin Conference that he was involved in humanitarian and philanthropic work and would not tax trade. Via the International Association of the Congo, he was able to lay claim to most of the Congo basin. On 29 May 1885, after the closure of the Berlin Conference, the king announced that he planned to name his possessions "the Congo Free State", an appellation which was not yet used at the Berlin Conference and which officially replaced "International Association of the Congo" on 1 August 1885. The Congo Free State operated as a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, although he never personally visited the state.

The state included the entire area of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo and existed from 1885 to 1908, when the government of Belgium reluctantly annexed the area.

Leopold's reign in the Congo eventually earned infamy on account of the atrocities perpetrated on the locals. Leopold II's Free State extracted ivory, rubber and minerals in the upper Congo basin for sale on the world market through a series of international concessionary companies, even though its ostensible purpose in the region was to uplift the local people and develop the area. Under Leopold II's administration, the Congo Free State became one of the greatest international scandals of the early 20th century. The Casement Report of the British Consul Roger Casement led to the arrest and punishment of officials who had been responsible for killings during a rubber-collecting expedition in 1903.

The loss of life and atrocities inspired literature such as Joseph Conrad's novel Heart of Darkness and raised an international outcry. Debate has been ongoing about the high death rate in this period. The boldest estimates state that the forced labour system led directly and indirectly to the deaths of 50 percent of the population. The lack of accurate records makes it difficult to quantify the number of deaths caused by the ruthless exploitation and the lack of immunity to new diseases introduced by contact with European colonists. During the Congo Free State propaganda war, European and US reformers exposed atrocities in the Congo Free State to the public through the Congo Reform Association, founded by Roger Casement and the journalist, author, and politician E. D. Morel. Also active in exposing the activities of the Congo Free State was the author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, whose book The Crime of the Congo was widely read in the early 1900s. By 1908, public pressure and diplomatic manoeuvres led to the end of Leopold II's absolutist rule and to the annexation of the Congo Free State as a colony of Belgium. It became known thereafter as the Belgian Congo. In addition, a number of major Belgian investment companies pushed the Belgian government to take over the Congo and develop the mining sector, as it was virtually untapped.

Leopold II[]

Leopold became the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken on his own behalf. He used explorer Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo, the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 the colonial nations of Europe authorized his claim by committing the Congo Free State to improving the lives of the native inhabitants. From the beginning, however, Leopold essentially ignored these conditions. He ran the Congo using the mercenary Force Publique for his personal enrichment. He used great sums of the money from this exploitation for public and private construction projects in Belgium during this period. He donated the private buildings to the state before his death, to preserve them for Belgium.

Leopold extracted a fortune from the Congo, initially by the collection of ivory, and - after a rise in the price of rubber in the 1890s - by forced labour from the natives to harvest and process rubber. Under his régime millions of the Congolese people died; modern estimates range from 1 to 15 million, with a consensus growing around 10 million. Human-rights abuses under his régime contributed significantly to these deaths. Reports of deaths and abuse led to a major international scandal in the early 20th century, and the Belgian government ultimately forced Leopold to relinquish control of the colony to Belgian civil administration in 1908.

After the king's death and transfer of his private colony to Belgium, there occurred a "Great Forgetting". Many Belgians in the 20th and 21st centuries remember Leopold II as the "Builder King" for his extensive public works projects, and many remain unaware of his role in the atrocities in the Congo. In the 1990s, the colonial Royal Museum for Central Africa made no mention of the atrocities committed in the Congo Free State, despite the museum's large collection of colonial objects. On the boardwalk of Blankenberge, a popular coastal resort, a monument shows a pair of colonists as heroes protecting a desperate Congolese woman and child with "civilization". In Ostend, the beach promenade has a 1931 sculptural monument to Leopold II, showing Leopold and grateful Ostend fishermen and Congolese. The inscription accompanying the Congolese group notes: "De dank der Congolezen aan Leopold II om hen te hebben bevrijd van de slavernij onder de Arabieren" ("The gratitude of the Congolese to Leopold II for having liberated them from slavery under the Arabs"). In 2004, an activist group cut off the hand of the leftmost Congolese bronze figure, in protest against the atrocities committed in the Congo. The city council decided to keep the statue in its new form, without the hand.

Leopold II remains a controversial figure in the Democratic Republic of Congo. His statue in the capital Kinshasa was removed after independence. Congolese culture minister Christophe Muzungu decided to reinstate the statue in 2005. He noted that the beginning of the Free State had been a time of some economic and social progress. He argued that people should recognize some positive aspects of the king as well as the negative; but hours after the six-metre statue was installed near Kinshasa's central station, it was officially removed. The same workers took it down.

Dawn of Man[]

"Fledgling Belgium looks to you, Leopold II, King of the Belgians. In your forty-four years of rule, you strove to bring Belgium to the forefront of European progress - to make her a model for industry and her wealth the envy of lesser nations. With the help of the explorer Henry Morton Stanley, you privately laid claim to the Congo, whose immense natural wealth would be put to the advancement of your kingdom. Though your reputation abroad would ultimately succumb to controversy, your public works would nonetheless put the Belgian people on the path to progress.


Art by JFD

King Leopold, once more Belgium must make haste if it is to maintain its stride with the march of progress. Can you take up the charge and bring wealth and ingenuity to your kingdom? Can you leave your people with great public works and develop Belgium into a modern nation? Can you build a civilization that can stand the test of time?"

Introduction: "Welcome. I am Leopold II, King of the Belgians. You'll notice that, though small, my country has a great entrepreneurial spirit. I hope you'll do business with us."

Defeat: "Will you treat my savages kindly, as I have done?"

Unique Attributes[]

Belgium (Leopold II)

Art by JFD

Congo Free State

Plantation Resources within two tiles are improved when a city is founded. Gold Gold from Plantations worked outside the Capital Capital is added to the Palace. Spending Gold Gold on Buildings generates Goldenage Golden Age Points.


Art by Alga & JFD

Force Publique (Foreign Legion)
  • Can be purchased with Gold Gold after Steam Power.
  • +20% Strength Combat Strength while inside Friendly Borders.
  • Ignores Terrain Costs when moving.

Art by Janboruta

Chocolaterie (Zoo)
  • +1 CultureIcon Culture.
  • Does not yield Happy Local Happiness.
  • Does not require a Colosseum.
  • Requires at least one available source of any Plantation-based resource per Chocolaterie.
  • Provides 1 copy of the unique Praline luxury resource.
City List
  1. Brussels
  2. Antwerp
  3. Ghent
  4. Charleroi
  5. Liege
  6. Bruges
  7. Namur
  8. Leuven
  9. Mons
  10. Aalst
  11. Mechelen
  12. La Louviere
  13. Kortrije
  14. Hasselt
  15. Ostend
  16. Ixelles
  17. Leopoldville
  18. Baudoinville
  19. Stanleyville
  20. Albertville
  21. Paulis
  22. Costermansville
  23. Thysville
  24. Brabanta
  25. Mérode
Spy List
  • Théophile
  • Félix
  • Eugène
  • Maurice
  • Martin
  • Auguste
  • Pierre
  • Leo
  • Hendrik
  • Gaston
  • Achille




Peace Theme War Theme

Victoria 2 Soundtrack- For God and Queen


Europa Universalis III - A Cruce Victoria-0

"For God and Queen", by Andreas Waldetoft "A Cruce Victoria", by Andreas Waldetoft

Mod Support[]

Mod Support
Community Balance Patch
Ethnic Units
Map Labels
Unique Cultural Influence
Wish for the World

Full Credits List[]

Steam Workshop Downloader
Steam Workshop
Latest Version: v 2
Last Updated: 7 November 2019


  • JFD: Author, Code, Design, Research, Text, Force Publique Icon
  • DarthKyofu: Civ Icon
  • Janboruta: Map, Building Icon
  • Regalman: Map
  • COF: Leaderscene
  • Danrell: Unit Models
  • Andreas Waldetoft: Music
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